NARS volunteers can provide additional equipment to patients suffering from acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. This condition is where the heart fails to pump adequately resulting in a large build-up of fluid inside the lungs, impairing exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lung. A machine called a ‘Continuous Positive Airway Pressure’ (CPAP) device can help treat this condition in the emergency setting. All NARS members carry disposable CPAP equipment, which has been shown to reduce the number of patients requiring invasive ventilation (with a breathing tube) in the intensive care unit. An asthma attack can be particularly severe and resistant to the standard treatment of nebulisers and steroids provided by paramedics. NARS volunteers carry additional drugs to treat acute severe asthma attacks.